Saturday, March 14, 2020
genetic researc h essays Genetic engineering is the directed alteration of genetic material by intervention in genetic processes (Websters 9th New Collegiate Dictionary). Genetic engineering is a controversial subject. Some people think that it is necessary while others think that it is harmful. Genetic engineering can be used in agriculture to make better plants. It can also be used in the courtroom for fingerprinting. Some techniques in genetic engineering are the selective breeding of plants and animals, recombinant DNA, and the reproduction between different strains or species (hybridization) (Encarta Encyclopedia 2001). B. Julie Johnson fears that genetic engineering will result in the devaluing of life because genes, embryos, and ultimately people will all be thought of as commodities to be bought and sold (Bender, 17). Test tube birth is mostly controversial because of religious and ethical reasons. People wonder if test tube babies will have souls or if they will go to a form of afterlife when they die. In our society there are two values which will allow anyone to do whatever he/she wants in human reproduction, said ethicist Daniel Callahan. One is the nearly absolute right to reproduce-or not- as you see fit. The other is that just about anything goes in the pursuit of improved health. (Stanley, 52) By law, naturally occurring organisms are not patenable. However, in April 1988, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) declared that a mouse in which experimenters inserted a gene associated with cancer was a manmade invention. The land mark mouse patent caused so much controversy that several bills for a moratorium on animal patents have since been unsuccessfully introduced. Meanwhile, in May 1992, Gen-Pharm International, a silicon Valley biotech company announced that USPTO would soon grant it the worlds second and third patents on mammals. One of the patents is for a ge...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
To what extent is marketing a hindrance or help to democracy in the 21st century - Essay Example How can we explain the effects of marketing in a democratic political system? This question cannot be addressed without establishing marketing as a concept and its relationship with the dynamic social, technological and economic landscape of the 21st century. The terms, mass-market, consumer culture, commodification, among others, characterize the 21st century societies. This underscored how marketing dominates the public sphere with the advent of technology. Here, the masses are either homogenized and heterogenised by marketing through technologies and media platforms that could deliver messages to a whole population simultaneously and real time. The consumer seduction has been so successful that economic models such as Fordism was able to develop expansionist strategies wherein mass markets have worked against the perpetuation of material class distinctions as economies of scale expanded the size and composition of the consuming population. (Dunn 1998: 119) Schumpeter (1976) talked about this agglomeration of people as some phenomenon that deprives individuals from their capacity to reflect rationally, arguing that when gathered together, people are easily worked into a state of excitement in which primitive impulses, infantilisms and criminal propensitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ replace moral restraints and civilised modes of thinking. (pp. 257) In relating this phenomenon to democracy and politics, we have the fact that leaders compete for votes in the same way that business people compete for customers. Subsequent application of economic theory to politics reached similar, if not identical, conclusions. John Corner and Dick Pels (2003), for instance, drew attention to the impact of imperfect information on political behaviour in a democracy, to quote: In a situation where views of voters are not immediately transparent to parties and party policy is unclear to voters, each has to incur costs in finding out information. Such costs have to be weighed against the benefits of the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Business Strategy - Essay Example The vast existing literature based on strategic management reflects both these perspectives from the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. The traditional economic theories embrace the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resource position while conceptualizing strategies to be adopted by the firm (Andrews, 1971). On the other hand, a majority of the formal tools used in economics nowadays emphasize upon the product-market facet of a firm. Although these are two different perspectives of studying a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resource position and its market activities, these are both focused on the role of resources used by the firm in determining its strategic decisions. Hence, one might expect to yield the same insight on following either of these two perspectives of the resource based view of a corporate organization. However, these insights might arrive with differing levels of ease, depending on which perspective the analyst has chosen. Literature review Economists traditionally consider economic units (firms) in terms of the resource endowments each firm has. These resource endowments are typically confined to three factors, namely, land, labour and capital. Authors that espouse the resource based perspective of the firm accredit Edith Tilton Penrose for laying the building blocks of this theory (Rugman and Verbeke, 2002). Penrose (1959) has made direct contributions to develop the modern view of resource based management. She has as well indirectly influenced the proposition by contributing further into these theories; the theory of creating competitive advantage, theory of sustaining the competitive advantage for the firm and the relationship between economic rents and competitive advantage (Penrose, 1959). There are debates regarding the work by Penrose. Rugman and Verbeke (2002) have put forth the argument that PenroseÃ¢â¬â¢s work was not aimed at providing strategy prescriptions for the creation of a sustainable flow of rents. The ideas put forth by Penrose have been used by several scholars as the foundation for models depicting the relationship between rents and competitive advantage of firms and they emphasise that this relationship plays a significant role in the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage. However, the argument against the espousing of the resource-based view (RBV) of Penrose by these scholars, is that, she had given a rigorous description of the growth process of firms in her works and did not intend to build up a strategy prescription for firms (Rugman and Verbeke, 2002). Till 1984, when Wernerfelt presented his work Ã¢â¬ËA resource-based view of the FirmÃ¢â¬â¢ this perspective of looking at firms did not become well accustomed with economists and analysts. While other papers did not yet receive much formal attention, the paper by Penrose (1959) had received wide acclamation from contemporary and modern economists. According to Wernerfelt (1984), some of the resources used in firms have certain properties that are unpleasant and unhelpfu l for modelling purposes. Due to this reason economists might not have considered these resources as a good measure for strategizing competitive advantage of firmsÃ¢â¬â¢. While products of a firm are easy to identify and the characteristics of their production and sales can be categorised and measured easily, a firmÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Microeconomics Project Essay An overview Facebook was realized on February 4, 2004 by an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur- Mark Elliot Zuckerberg. Facebook has said it will be valued at up to $96bn (Ã £59bn) when it sells shares to investors this month in a record-breaking flotation. The first investment from Peter Thiel was $500,000 into Facebook. Facebook has minted four billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, Eduardo Saverin and Sean Parker. The 27-year-old Zuckerbergs net worth was estimated at $17.5bn on the 2011 Forbes list of the wealthiest Americans. Moskovitz had a net worth of $3.5bn but pipped Zuckerberg for the title of worlds youngest billionaire, being eight days younger. The Brazilian-born Saverin, who left Facebook early on after a falling-out with Zuckerberg, had a net worth of $2bn. Parker, the Napster co-founder who briefly served as Facebooks president, had a net worth of $2.1bn On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in domain sales income, making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history Nowadays, 1 in every 13 people on earth uses Facebook, more than 900m active users, with over 250 million of them who log in every day. The average user has about 130 friends, but that has expanded in. The core 18-24 year old segment is now growing the fastest at 74% year on year. Almost 72% of all US internet users are on now Facebook, while 70% of the entire user base is located outside of the US. (Source: Facebook) At the beginning, Facebook has 1 million users. In 2008, it increased to 100 million. In 2010 the number of users reached 400 million and up to 500 million within 5 months. Google- a web search engine, it is the companys most popular service. It began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. Technology is enhancing us as human beings and the integrating of artificial intelligence is slowly being weaved and embedded into our activities and habits almost without us noticing. This reliance that is permeating our day to day existence even extends to a reported 60% plus of all buying decisions now starting with a Google search as we start our research online rather than walk the shop aisles and asking sales attendants questions. The first funding of $100,000 for Google was provided by Andy Bechtolsheim the co-founder of Sun Microsystems. Googles initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. The stocks performance after the IPO went well, with shares hitting $700 for the first time on October 31, 2007. primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market. In 2004: Gmail launched, Google IPO 8 billion pages indexed. They acquired YouTube in 2006 for $1.65 billion. Android was announced in 2007 and Google Chrome was launched in 2008. The 3 charts show the Revenue, Income and number of Employee in two companies. RIVAL PRODUCTION The big question is given, why a search engine like Google to be afraid of Facebook, a social network when the field of activities of these two different companies as far as they seem completely can live peacefully. Google is famous for its searching services, the key point lead to the huge success of Google. It links to billions of Web pages, so users can easily obtain the information they want through the keywords and the operators. Google also uses its search technology for many other search services, including Image Search (photos), Google News, interactive community Google Groups, Google Maps. They also launched variety kinds of services such as Gmail, Google Earth, Google Docs, Picasa, Google Desktop, Google talk, Google Chrome, Google Translate and Android. Facebook is a social networking website for free access with more than 600 million members worldwide with hundreds of millions of activities that occur every day. The amount of data produced in a day of Facebook occupies a huge part of Internet data. Users can communicate with others, make friends, send messages and update their personal profile. Facebook has several features that users can interact such as Wall, Pokes, Photos, Status, Tag (feature of imaging applications), Facebook Notes, Facebook Username, Facebook Messages, Voice Calls, Video Calling, Facebook Subscribe. Looking closely, using the Internet for social purpose has been increasing over the years. More and more people spend longer hours of socializing than browsing so the use of the internet had tilted more on the social side. Facebook has a strong impact to our society. The social circle will suggest what to read, what to check out, where to go to and what to see. These matters may seem not important, but for the business this is such a big deal. As a result, a vast number of companies had recently shifted their focus on socializing, this led to the competition Google versus F acebook. Google is stepping into the Facebook market. Google also has promoted the search function in social network (Social Search) combined between Facebook and search engine Bing with support in 19 languages. Google Social Search helps users to find the appropriate content from the online link on their social network such as websites, blogs, articles and other content created or shared by their friends. Moreover, through many failures of Orkut (social networking and discussion), Google Buzz and Google Wave, in 2010 Google also revealed their plan about new social networking called Google Me to compete Facebook. Google Me combines best features of these social networks having failed before such as allow users check how many visitors clicked, watched, or your missed updates, provide variety kinds of games and application, control the amount of friends who have connected with your friends, stop spreading wide for what was posted. Example, both Orkut and Facebook allow users to delete the share, but this feature of Orkut is much better. This means that if you share a picture for yourself, then you want to delete them, you are allowed to erase that image on your home page, and on top of all other friends.Facebook does not do this,so Google Me is expected as a more attractive version of social networking. In 2011, Google has officially announced the Google+project, a social networking service has the functionality looks very similar to Facebook such as update status, share links and upload photos. Google+allow users to communicate separately for each group. Instead of posting a content update for everyone, Google+ allows users to display that content to the particular group (called a circle), such as classmates, colleagues, family members. Recently, Facebook is actively improving its own search engine. Old founder of the Google Wave, Lars Rasmussen, has joined Facebook, is developing a version of the search engines social networking to develop a new version called Ã¢â¬Å"search engines social networkingÃ¢â¬ . This system will be expected to compete with the search engine of Giant Google in the future. The main purpose of the project is to develop a better search engine that can help brows through the huge amount of content created by users on social networks, as the status updates, articles, video clips and other information. Facebook expects a new email service will help them overtake Google and dominate the social networking world. In 2010, Facebook unveiled the project Titan to compete with Gmail from text messages (SMS), instant messaging (IM), email to Facebook messages. The system will combine messaging via mobile phones, email and chat messages to send to the recipients and they can reply to messages in any way. Facebook uses this project likea special strategy for competition generally on the Internet and particularly on social network. This time, there is notjust the war on email. Facebook seems want to dominate in every field. Facebook is a best place to share photos, surpassing all other services from Flickr, Picasa to Twitter even though its image quality is not high. Facebook members posted 250 million photos per day and this is the function most users use in the social network. Therefore, the Facebook pay billions for the application only works on iPhone and Android also is understandable. Moreover, they also developed a tool Facebook camera similar to Instagram. BUSINESS MODEL To understand why Google and Facebook abominate each other, it is necessary to study their business model. Facebook is now one of the largest social networks while Google is believed as the most powerful searching engine. Each tech titans have been reaping significant success in their domain. However, they both seem have the same main source of revenue is advertising. Ã¢â¬Å"Facebook has 901 million monthly active users (MAUs) as of March 31, 2012, an increase of 33% as compared to 680 million MAUs as of March 31, 2011. And 488 million MAUs used Facebook mobile products in March 2012Ã¢â¬ -Facebook Amended S1. With great numbers of users, people are deeply impressed by FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Nevertheless, Google has crossed the 1 billion user mark, while Facebook is not far behind at 900 million however, users spend a far greater amount of time on Facebook per day, approximately 7 times higher. Top 10 Web Brand for August 2011 (U.S., Total) Rank| Brand| Total Internet Audience(thousand)| Time per Person (hh:mm:ss)| 1| Google | 176,235| 1:47:42| 2| Facebook| 163,163| 7:45:49*| 3| Yahoo| 149,072| 2:12:08| 4| MSN/WindowsLive/Bing| 134,410| 1:43:45| Read as: During August 2011, 176.2 million unique U.S. people visited GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s websites(Source: Nielsen) In the term of valuation, after the most crucial event of FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s timeline- IPO, going public, Facebook is known being in the position of GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s 2003. The table below indicates the comparison between Google (GOOG) and Facebook (FB) in different categories such as revenue, revenue growth, operating income and gross margin as they are in the public day. That means for Google, its first quarter is when they were in Q3, while FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s would be Q1 2010 As the table shows, the growth of both companies over the time is almost equivalent as Google 19% and Facebook 16%. If taking into the specific, Google growth rate is arguably more stable than its counterpart social network. The primary reason causing such deviation is that Google was well-established. The following chart will present that point more clearly Source: GOOG data YCHARTS In comparison, Facebook had a dramatic variable number and especially it was negative in the last quarter, Q9 with -6%.Probably, the company has not decided which its business model is yet (Husky Financial, Facebook vs Google: what you need to know post-IPO). Besides, the other factor affects a volatile FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s development is the dependence in Zynga. There is 15% of Facebook revenue from Zynga (Forbes, By the numbers: Facebook investor checklist). According to the S1, Ã¢â¬Å"If Zynga does not maintain its level of engagement with our users or if we are unable to successfully maintain our relationship with Zynga, our financial results could be harmedÃ¢â¬ . The crucial income of two companies is generated from advertising. Google have recently proved their Google Adwords comes off well. Thousands of business could buy ads on Google and leads or sales with a proven positive ROI, return on investment. Advertising on Facebook shows much less convincing at this position. The stop in using FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s ads is the forceful example. General Motors Co said on Tuesday (June 22) it will stop advertising on Facebook, even as the social networking website prepares to go public, with a source familiar with the matter saying the automaker had decided Facebooks ads had little impact on consumers (Reuters). When going to public in 2004, raising just under $2 billion with an initial market cap of le than $25 billion, less than a decade, Google is worth close to 10 times. The IPO gave needed capital to expand their business. This scenario maybe not actually happen to Facebook, according to the previously mention. CONCLUSION A famous Chinese quote Ã¢â¬Å"One mountain cannot have two tigersÃ¢â¬ . Thus, a social media site or a search engine site will gain a victory? It has not exactly answered yet. However, according to several surveys and analysis in previous parts, Google has more strengthened than Facebook for some reasons: 1. We have many reasons to access Google but only a few reasons to login in Facebook. Most of us go Facebook for chatting , sharing your thoughts , seeing new update , seeing who liked our status, and sharing from our friend or using some applications and playing games . We are busy at looking the updates rather than ads on Facebook. Nobody logins in Facebook to check or to search when they can buy a cheap T shirt or which books are famous, so on. On the other hand, Google is more useful than Facebook. We can search to know any information that we need such as which college is the best or which food is good for health. When we all open up Google for the above mentioned purposes we click on various ads and indirectly generate revenue for Google. The more we search information the more revenue we will generate for Google. 2. People use Facebook less than they used to be A recent survey showed that 34% of users spend less time for Facebook over half a year ago. They assumed that Facebook is boring, not useful, not related and not safe to keep personal information. 20% users spend more time for Facebook, 1/3 users now do not login in Facebook, and nearly 50% of users login in Facebook that stay the same. In addition, a survey from 31/5 to 4/6 /2012 with 1.036 people in America by Reuters and market research company Ipsos presented that most of 80% users never buy product or service on Facebook. As a result, many advertising companies are disappointed and do not want to advertise on facebook anymore. For example: Early 2011, Facebook earned $3.7 billion through advertising. In 2012, this revenue is slowing. In fact, General Motors has recently regained about 10 million investments for advertising on Facebook because it was not effective. 3. Facebook will be forgotten Eric Jackson, founder of Ironfire Capital, said that in 5 to 8 years, Facebook would disappear the same way Yahoo now. Although Yahoo is still making money, still profitable, still has 13 thousand employees, but Yahoo is just 10% in value compared with their peak in 2000. Basically, Yahoo! has been considered as disappeared. Whether Google or Facebook win, users also have benefit. Both companies are fighting to capture the heart of users worldwide. The competition gets its benefit because it can prevent monopoly situation. As long as the two companies keep on fighting, users will continue to gain benefits because the two companies will continue to improve, change, and figure out new features to attract users. For example: Currently, Google has extra the Google Plus to attract users and many other existent features such as YouTube, Feedburner, Chat, Analytics, and Docs. Facebook has the latest new Facebook Timeline feature. The competition between Google and Facebook is just at the beginning stage. We will be seeing more actions and tricks from both sides in future. As the main goal is to gather as many users as possible, both parties will take any necessary steps to capture usersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. In the future, users can get more benefit such as gifts, discounts, coupons, competition prize, lucky draws and many other events by just participating. Works Cited August 2011 Top US Web Brands. August 2011, Top US Web Brands. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2012. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/august-2011-top-us-web-brands. Facebook. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 June 2012. Web. 20 June 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook. Google Se Tao Ra Mang Xa Hoi Tot Hon Facebook. Http://www.pcworld.com.vn/articles/tin-tuc/tin-quoc-te/2010/08/1220500/google-se-tao-ra-mang-xa-hoi-tot-hon-facebook/. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2012. http://www.pcworld.com.vn/articles/tin-tuc/tin-quoc-te/2010/08/1220500/google-se-tao-ra-mang-xa-hoi-tot-hon-facebook/. Google vs. Facebook. Netchunks. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2012. http://www.netchunks.com/google-vs-facebook/. PGDE Scrapbook. Enter Website Address or Keywords to Cite. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2012. http://pgde.tumblr.com/post/3289734065/enter-website-address-or-keywords-to-cite. VÃ ¬ Sao Google Lai Ghet Va so Facebook. TGDT. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2012. http://genk.vn/c188n2011090408403182/vi-sao-google-lai-ghet-va-so-facebook.chn. Ã¢â¬Å" 1/3 ngÃ °Ã¡ » i dung ÃâÃ £ Ã¢â¬Å"ngÃ¡ º ¥y Ã¢â¬Å" FacebookÃ¢â¬ .vietnamnet.9 June 2012. Web . 14 June 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Google vs. FacebookÃ¢â¬ . netchunks.18 May 2012. Web. 14 June 2012 . Ã¢â¬Å"The Competition Between Facebook and Google Which Might Benefits UsersÃ¢â¬ . toasteggme.24 September 2011. Web. 14 June 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Facebook still not equipped enough to compete with GoogleÃ¢â¬ .aryaninfo.n.d.Web. 14 June 2012. Husky Financial. Facebook Vs. Google: What You Need To Know Post-IPO Seeking Alpha. Facebook Vs. Google: What You Need To Know Post-IPO Seeking Alpha. Seeking Alpha, 17 May 2012. Web. 4 June 2012. http://seekingalpha.com/article/598731-facebook-vs-google-what-you-need-to-know-post-ipo. Klayman, Ben, and Alexei Oreskovic. GM to Drop Facebook Ads Due to Low Consumer Impact. Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 15 May 2012. Web. 4 June 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/15/net-us-gm-facebook-idUSBRE84E1D420120515. Nielsenwire. August 2011- Top US Web Brands. August 2011 Top US Web Brands. N.p., 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 June 2012. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/august-2011-top-us-web-brands. YChart. Google Price: 581.53. Google Price (GOOG). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2012. http://ycharts.com/companies/GOOG/price. YCharts. By The Numbers:Facebook Investor Checklist. Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 18
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Cannery Row Cannery Row by John Steinbeck is a post World War I piece written with a mixture of humor and sadness about the lives of the residents of Cannery Row, a street in Monterey California. The story opens in a messy grocery store run by a Chinese man named Lee Chong. The one room store is described like so "while not a model of neatness, was a miracle of supply... clothes, food, both fresh and canned, liquor, tobacco, fishing equipment, machinery, boats, cordage, caps, pork chops, slippers, and a silk kimono" and last but certainly not least whiskey, could all be purchased. All of the whiskeys had names like "Old" Tennessee and were at least four months old. Our casts of characters have nicknamed the cheapest whiskey "Old Tennis Shoe". Lee Chong is a good man who has the respect of the town. He manages to be respected by the entire town, while most of the town was in his financial debt. Debt would rise for many people who shopped at Lee's, because he would trust co nsumers "until further trust would be ridiculous". From this beginning comes a cast of characters long and detailed, making the book and the street come alive. Turning to the next page was not a chore but a leap into another person's woes and prospers. We meet men like Horace Abbeville who's summarized tale is one that begins with debt, which Horace pays off with a shack he owned that housed fishmeal. After Lee Chong agreed to this arrangement, Mr. Abbeville sauntered up the long trails to this shack and shot him self in the head, leaving his wife and children sad and confused. Lee had not pressured Horace for payment he had only suspended Horace's credit. Lee felt badly about Horace's suicide and always watched out for Horace's family. Lee's new ownership of Horace's shack leads us to the introduction of Mack and the boys. Mack twists Lee's arm to allow them to stay in the fishmeal shack now called the Palace Flophouse and Grill. Mack and the boys are men who very well could go off and do something with themselves. Instead, Mack and the boys would sit around drinking Old Tennis Shoe, getting into trouble whenever possible.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
A1 Steak Sauce and Marinades| To:| Smith, Chuck | From:| | CC:| | Date:| | Re:| Lawry's Defense| Comments:| Issue Lawry is attempting to release a new steak sauce that should penetrate the market by early April. Obviously a new player in the market is not a major concern to A1/Kraft, having over 50 percent of the market share. The best case scenario for Lawry is that they will only gain ten percent of the market share. The direct threat for A1 lies with LawryÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing tactics. Lawry is attempting to launch a Memorial Day advertisement with Publix, offering a two-for $5 promotion.The issue is that retailers generally support only one brand in a particular category in a given week. In recent years A1 has always locked in that spot. Aside from LawryÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion dates, their promotion price is also a major concern. A1 sells over ten percent of their yearly volume each promotion during the summer holiday promotion weeks of Memorial Day and the Fourth of July. Generally A1 would run a fifty cent off promotion with the unit sale price lowered to $4. 49. As the category leader in the steak sauce, A1 has been able to continually increase sales revenue by relying on price increases.The price increase is the primary way that A1 is able to increase revenue since volume has been stagnant the past few years. [Appendix A is a SWOT analysis displaying the internal and external factors that contributes to A1Ã¢â¬â¢s current dilemma] Evaluating Alternatives A1 Steak Sauce has several alternatives to evaluate. A1 can be proactive or reactive. By taking the proactive approach, A1 can beat Lawry at its own game of strategic pricing. Option 1: A1 can directly price match and copy the promotions of Lawry. A1 Steak Sauce will considerably drop its prices, which will clutch all of LawryÃ¢â¬â¢s forecasted sales.However, it will not only affect Lawry but it will decrease A1Ã¢â¬â¢s potential of future revenue too. Option 2: A1 can do a similar price match of a Ã¢â¬Å "two-forÃ¢â¬ special. Rather than a two-for-$5, A1 could shoot for a more reasonable approach of two-for- $8. Although both scenarios will require the same amount of units sold (sold in pairs) in order to breakeven. [Appendix B shows Pro Forma for Option 1 and Appendix C shows a Pro Forma for Option 2] A1 can also take a reactive approach by increase its advertising while Lawry is running its two-for-$5 promotion.A1 Steak Sauce can pay for more efficient shelf spacing in the retail outlet. This will include end caps, more facings in the stores, larger and increase signage (bigger and better than what they have done in years past). A1 can also use their brand recognition to their advantage by ensuring more restaurants that publically use A1 display their products, rather itÃ¢â¬â¢s on the menu or tables. Currently A1 spends roughly 15% of total revenue on advertising. Option 3: A1 could simply increase their percentage of revenue to marketing and adverting from 15% to 20%.This ap proach will decrease A1Ã¢â¬â¢s net profit by roughly 7. 5million (with the worst case scenario that A1 will not increase sales at all) but it will allow A1 to increase its brand awareness and make it substantially harder for Lawry to penetrate the market with its new steak sauce. [Appendix D displays A1Ã¢â¬â¢s pro forma with the original 15% of revenue funding its marketing while Appendix E displays an increase to 20% of revenue funding marketing initiatives]Recommendation: Based on the financial analysis of each option, Option 2 would be the best approach for A1.Although each scenario is profitable, Option 2 has more incentives than the other options. Option 2 would be a better deal for A1 because it will generate over 17 million dollars more in profit than Option 1. It will take 38k units to breakeven or 19k pairs on sale for two-for-$8. The breakeven amount is not that far off from what A1 is already accustom to meeting. The price cut alone would be also be great incentive fo r the customers because they will save $2 ($1 per unit) rather than the normal fifty cent.That $2 reduction will be very favorable for A1 granted that itÃ¢â¬â¢s will go into effect during the holiday season when shoppers are looking for a bargain, especially while the cost of beef is going through inflation. Additionally, the amount of money spent on advertising will not increase compared to Option 3, so A1 can stick to their normal tactics and not have to focus on cutting cost elsewhere to cover the increase in advertising. | APPENDIX Appendix A: SWOT Analysis
Monday, January 6, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1147 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2018/12/15 Category Food Essay Type Research paper Level High school Tags: Budget Essay Taxation Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Taxation in the United Kingdom can involve payment to the minimum of approximately three different levels of government. A budget deficit is referred as the twelve-monthly amount that the administration has to borrow so as to meet the deficit between the present receipts as well as state expenditure. The government of the United Kingdom need to raise the tax revenue in order to reduce the budget deficit of the country.Ã Ã In this paper, I will show whether I agree with a politician or not. I disagree with the politician that in United Kingdom, government should place a tax on all food yields since everybody must eat.Ã This is because it is it is unrealistic that taxation food products like non-alcoholic beverages will automatically the raise the government revenue of UK.Ã There are several reasons as to why taxation of foods yields will not raise government revenue. One, price elasticity. So as to generate tax revenue to the government, a tax must be applied to foodstuffs which are price inelastic (That is, products whose use lies less compared to proportionately when their cost inelastic) food product price inelastic. This indicates that effects of an increase in cost are hard to affect and may not be estimated thus, food products may not increase tax revenue. Two, effects on the other taxes. Those tax can potentially decrease other types of revenue which are paid by manufacturers, traders as well as merchants of taxed foodstuffs and their related providers and workers. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Effects of a Food Taxation on the UKs Budget Deficit Position" essay for you Create order Three, shopping over a border. The tax could also promote trans-border from buyers attempting in order to avoid the tax decrease. Taxing of food products will offer incentives to food manufacturers so that they may improve the nutritional profile of their own products thus, many people will buy, and hence it will not have effect on overall the government revenue. Four, intrinsic administrative prices. The design, observing as well as implementation of the tax could force significant administrative prices on administration making process to long, complicated as well as cannot be frugally productive as predictable. In addition, taxation of food products may change the way people eat.Ã Business typically passes substantial percentages of taxes through retail cost (Borrelli, 205.p 225).Ã Individual eat less food as well as the drink small amount of the targeted product, thus raising the government revenues becomes expensive (Arestis, 2004.p, 74). Also, taxation of food production would be inefficient in raising the government revenues.Ã Products will not be able to adequately raise the government revenue without putting burdens on the economy too much. I agree with the politician that taxes on food, vegetable, and fruits, will be applied to the grocery stores so that the low-income customers are protected. When food stores incurred a greater taxation they increase the price of food in a regular manner and so they low-income earner can only purchase what they need basically. The introduction of a tax to food especially the food which contributes to poor health is important for the rate to which they are being taken can reduce. The introduction of a tax to grocery stores will reduce the frequency to which unhealthy food contribute to our poor health. The politician suggestion was not positively taken by the people of the United Kingdom but some people agree with him when they see the ?bigger picture. This is because the seller will not allow their business to make a loss. They will distribute the value added tax to the people. This will make the prices of commodities to rise and therefore hard for the easy access to this products. When the tax is applied to sellers unnecessary food manufacturing will increase the cost and their intake will reduce by a great percentage. The reduction of unnecessary food substances, especially unhealthy substances, will reduce, calorie which are taken every day in the United Kingdom every day (Taylor, 2017 p. 2). The groceries industries resist on the tax increase policies is done under responsibility deal which was signed in 2011 by the department of health. The tax applied to the sellers is expected to control the production of food, vegetable, and fruits, and reduce what is being produced unnece ssarily. For the government to collect enough revenue from the sellers, it should in return provide good services so that they can be motivated in paying. The government should create a good environment for the grocers to sell their products and this will ensure them enough profit and therefore they will exploiting the consumers. When the government and the sellers are associating well, taxation can benefit all of them, which include, the seller, the producer, the government and the consumers. Low-income consumers can be protected by the government if it brought back to the consumers what they have taken from the seller in form of a tax (Taylor, 2017 p. 6). Besides groceries, the government of the United Kingdom should focus on taxing soft drinks and other sugar products. Taxing the soft drinks should raise a good revenue for the government. Moreover, this taxation will only affect the profit of the producers and the consumers will not be affected. Although in a way the consumer will be affected, the tax will be distributed evenly to all people. Taxing the soft drinks will also result in a reduction of sugar in the beverage and hence reducing the risk of getting a sugar health problem. The tax that will be collected from the production and distribution of soft drinks and sugar will be used by the government to initiate an anti-obesity initiation (Taylor, 2017 p. 2). On the expenditure budget of the government, it shows that a lot of money is required to support the obese people. Taxing sugar and soft drinks will reduce the level of obesity due to the reduction of sugar in the products as well as raising money to support the people affec ted. Furthermore, the food and beverages companies are not happy about the introduction of taxes on their production. They insist on the voluntary action to be taken. Companies are not willing to support the motion for they are not willing to pay an extra tax for the products they produce. Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that food such as fruits, alcohol and other beverages should not be taxed because of various reasons like price inelasticity thus no government revenue there are other types of foods that can be taxable like soft drinks and sugar. Therefore, taxation of some food products in the UK will increase government revenue, hence dealing with the budget deficit. References Arestis, P. and Sawyer, M., 2004. On fiscal policy and UK budget deficits.Ã Intervention. Journal Ã Ã Ã of Economics,Ã 1(2), pp.61-74. Borrelli, S.A. and Royed, T.J., 2005. Government strengthand UK budget deficits in advanced democracies.Ã European Journal of Political Research,Ã 28(2), pp.225-260. Taylor, R. (2017). Debate: this house believes that the UK population trend in obesity cannot be reversed without food taxation.